The Bazaruto Archipelago: a biodiversity hotspot
The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region stretches from the Horn of Africa (Somalia) to the southern tip of South Africa. Over 20 marine conservation areas and national parks exist in this coastline, nine of them located within Mozambique. One of the most important, the Bazaruto Archipelago National Park (BANP) supports coral reefs, seagrass meadows, mangrove forests, sand banks, deep canyons, and narrow shelves that quickly connect with the open ocean.
The BANP is a group of five islands in the Inhambane Province, Mozambique, classified as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in 1971. This Marine Park is a conservation priority owing to its significance for contributing to biodiversity and the important goods and services provided by the variety of marine ecosystems. The marine life that inhabits the BANP includes: humpback whales, dolphins and sharks, marlin and tuna, sailfish, wahoo, king mackerel, great trevally, groupers, rays, manta rays, reef fish and turtles.
Resources are currently under threat of exploitation by artisanal fisheries and local communities. The BANP is an example of a pristine coastal location that is quickly undergoing changes following human development that impacts local to regional ecosystems.
The first permanent multi ecosystem time-series Ocean Observatory in Africa
Monitoring across spatiotemporal scales is key to understand the magnitude of regional pressures including climate change and human impact on marine coastal ecosystems such as the BANP.
The BCSS Ocean Observatory contributes to the ongoing data gathered by cruises such as the GEOTRACES Program, the SIBER-SCOR Indian Ocean Programme, and the GOA-ON international network (NOAA/UNESCO endorsed).
The main objectives of the Observatory are:
i) To monitor spatiotemporal variability in seawater key parameters relevant to Climate Change/Ocean Acidification (OA) and Human Impact/Pollution concerns at a local, regional and global level.
ii) To identify the current and future marine environmental status of the BANP, and how Climate Change/OA and Human impact/ pollution affect its ecosystems, with the ultimate goal to be a long-term oceanographic reference for the WIO region.
iii) To effectively and timely transfer BANP Ocean Observatory time-series outcomes to relevant local, regional/national, and international communities in a way that is used to inform management, conservation and policy decisions.
OPEN (no restrictions)
Available to all for download/usage
Jurisdiction Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC0BY-4.0)
A DOI name shall be used to cite and link BCSS datasets
|Ocean: Continuous time-series data|
|Data type||Data sub-type||Parameter||Units||Method||Stations|
|Satellite||Physics||Sea Surface Temperature (SST)||ºC||Remote Sensing Algorhythm||6 sectors (see methods)|
|Biology||Sea Surface Chlorophyll a (Chl. a)||mg m-3|
|Weather||Physics||Air Temperature||ºC||Weather Station Sensors||
Benguerra Island (bulk)
|Wind Speed||m s-1|
Access our platform and data products directly
DATA TYPE 1: OPEN (no restrictions) – anyone can download/ use – reported to government/authorities
Things like temperature and chlorophyll from the satellited, weather numerical data from BCSS weather station, any data BCSS feels like opening publicly unrestricted under a DOI and a Creative Commons Licence.
DATA TYPE 2: OPEN (after signing a Data Agreement under BCSS terms) – signatory parties can download/use- reported to government/authorities
Things like complex datasets or mixed datasets that will make
a peer-reviewed publication, total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), multiprobe sensor YSI-pH, YSI-dissolved oxygen, USI-salinity, YSI-temperature, dissolved nutrients, dissolved heavy metals, dissolved mercury, stable isotopes, DNA barcosing, plankton data, VEMCO megafauna tracking list, LOTEK satellite data tracks, seabed 3D bathymetry mapr,s 3D bathymetry raw XYZ data, 3D bathymetry raw ArcGIS shapefiles/ rasters and layers, certain GPS coordinates of animals and seabed featured, any data BCSS feels like opening publicly restricted by signed agreement under a DOI and a Creative Commons Licence.
DATA TYPE 3: CLOSED (to the public) – reported to government/authorities if needed/found necessary
Things like confidential GPS spots, secret diving spots, secret fishing spots, sensible spawning aread, spoth holding any element BCSS feels like there is a risk to release any data/ information in relation to it, hotspots of endangered species, trackings of endangered species, any sensitive information, data that BCSS wants only for internal use. DATA TYPE 3 could become DATA TYPE 2 upon request and at BCSS’s discretion as longas there is a sound justification.
Type 1: Sea Surface Temperature (SST – °C)
Type 1: Chlorophyll a (Chl a – mg m-3)
Type 1: Air Temperature (sensor) (ºC)
Type 1: Wind Type 1: Speed/Direction (sensor) (m s-1)
Type 1: Air humidity (sensor) (%)
Type 1: Atmospheric Pressure (sensor) (mbar)
Type 1: Rain fall (sensor) (mm)
Type 2: Seabed temperature (HOBO) (ºC)
Type 2: Seabed Light (HOBO) (lux)
Megafauna detection data (VEMCO receiver) (detection nº)
Type 3: Megafauna satellite data (LOTEK) (GPS tracks)
Hydrophone/SoundTrap data (ST 600) (Recordings)
Type 2: Total Alkalinity – TA (bottled) ()
Type 2: Dissolved Inorganic Carbok – DIC (bottled) ()
Type 2: Major elements (bottled) ()
Type 2: Temperature (YSI probe) (ºC)
Type 2: Salinity (YSI probe) ()
Type 2: Dissolved Oxygen (YSI probe) ()
pHtotal (YSI probe) (n/a)
Type 2: Plankton tow (50-200 net) (Various)
Type 2: Coral carbonate samples (dried) (Various)
Type 2: Benthic invertebrate samples (dried) (Various)
Type 2: Megafauna ID spatial data (boat surveys) (Various)
Type 2: Megafauna isotope/DNA samples (Various)
Type 2: Seabed 3D multi beam data (boat surveys) (ArcGIS file extensions)
Type 2: Plastic surveys data (Various)
Type 2: Permaculture data (Various)