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Ocean Observatory Map

The Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory is managed by Bazaruto Center for Scientific Studies and is organised in four themes, working in a multi-ecosystem time-series mode to understand Earth-Ocean biogeochemical and ecological processes, mostly related to environmental constraints. The platform is organised around mooring (GPS-seabed) and floating (GPS-boat) stations where sampling takes place on a continuous and monthly basis. The sampling also involves large spatial surveys to understand couplings of marine life with their environment over time. The Ocean Observatory platform supports a variety of measurements via weather stations, roundtrips, acoustic receivers, multi parameter sensors, bottled samples, tagging, bio-samples and remote sensing methods. The main ecosystems surveyed for time-series data include coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and the water column (offshore open ocean).

The Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory is a unique platform managed by BCSS on Benguerra Island, endorsed by NOAA and GOA-ON, with Mozambican IPI protection under license no. XXX, approved for operation via MCT license no. XXX and ANAC license no. XXX.

Research Themes Methodology

An overview of the Ocean Observatory research themes is available below for downloading. This includes the specific methodology for data types and sub-types, as well as parameters. For specific data sets, please see the tables below. 

THEME 1: ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION & MONITORING
Monitoring the ocean over time and space (time-series monitoring) helps scientists better understand intricate workings of marine ecosystems. This theme combines remote sensing, underwater and seabed measurements based on different resolutions (continuous to monthly).

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THEME 2: SPECIES IDENTIFICATION & HABITAT MAPPING
Conducting of open ocean, coastal, seabed and underwater surveys to study marine life hotspots and learn how organisms interact with the environment over time and space. This theme focuses on resident and migratory species identification and monitoring in space and time during the year to help understand their distribution.

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THEME 3: MIGRATORY FISH POPULATIONS DYNAMICS
Locating and tagging of pelagic animals (conventional, acoustic, satellite). Bio-samples are collected for isotope and DNA extraction. This theme combines research fishing practices with bio-samples recovery from animals to answer how animals use their habitat, how environmental constraints impact their migration, as well as how they use the water masses and marine protected areas.

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THEME 4: LAND & OUTREACH
The marine debris monitoring program is a collaborative initiative between BCSS and the Bazaruto Archipelago National Park (BANP) on Benguerra Island. Two main survey methods are adopted on pre-determined study sites, these include: monthly accumulative surveys and opportunistic standing stock surveys. 

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GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

The Bazaruto Archipelago: a biodiversity hotspot

The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region stretches from the Horn of Africa (Somalia) to the southern tip of South Africa. Over 20 marine conservation areas and national parks exist in this coastline, nine of them located within Mozambique. One of the most important, the Bazaruto Archipelago National Park (BANP) supports coral reefs, seagrass meadows, mangrove forests, sand banks, deep canyons, and narrow shelves that quickly connect with the open ocean.

The BANP is a group of five islands in the Inhambane Province, Mozambique, classified as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in 1971. This Marine Park is a conservation priority owing to its significance for contributing to biodiversity and the important goods and services provided by the variety of marine ecosystems. The marine life that inhabits the BANP includes: humpback whales, dolphins and sharks, marlin and tuna, sailfish, wahoo, king mackerel, great trevally, groupers, rays, manta rays, reef fish and turtles.

Resources are currently under threat of exploitation by artisanal fisheries and local communities. The BANP is an example of a pristine coastal location that is quickly undergoing changes following human development that impacts local to regional ecosystems.

OPEN (no restrictions)
Available to all for download/usage
Jurisdiction Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC0BY-4.0)
A DOI name shall be used to cite and link BCSS datasets

OCEAN: Continuous time series data
Data type Data sub-type Parameter Citation/doi select data
Satellite Physics Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
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Biology Sea Surface Chlorophyll a (Chl. a) Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
Weather Physics Air Temperature Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
ACCESS
Wind Speed Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
Wind Direction Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
Air Humidity Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
Atmospheric Pressure Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
Rain fall Lebrato, M., Karen, B., Morkel, J. and Jije, M. Ocean Observatory time-series database. Bazaruto Archipelago Ocean Observatory. 2021
https://doi.org/01.0001/BCSS.000001
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